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Пять правил английской пунктуации

При обучении английскому правилами пунктуации почему-то часто пренебрегают, то ли считая их недостаточно важными, то ли в силу других обстоятельств, известных только преподавателям. Тем не менее, правильная расстановка знаков препинания - это показатель высокого уровня владения языком. В некоторых случаях одна неправильно поставленная запятая может изменить смысл предложения (мы все помним судьбоносную запятую в предложении «Казнить нельзя помиловать».

Итак, предлагаем восполнить этот пробел и рассмотреть несколько важных правил пунктуации английского языка. Не будем останавливаться на простейших случаях, которые совпадают с русским языком. Гораздо больший интерес представляют те правила, которые не сходны с русским языком.

Для начала хотелось бы напомнить названия знаков пунктуации в английском языке:

  • . full stop (брит.) /period(ам.)
  • ?question mark
  • !exclamation mark
  • , comma
  • ; semicolon
  • : colon
  • ­­- dash
  • … dots
  • ( ) brackets, ellipsis
  • ” ” quotation marks

1. Запятая перед and при перечислении, или Oxford Comma

В русском языке при перечислении трех и более предметов запятая перед союзами и/или не ставится. Однако в английском нередко встречаются предложения такого типа:

He bought milk, bread, and butter.

В то же время, если вы опустите запятую перед and, это не будет считаться ошибкой. Дело в том, что существует два варианта этого правила - британский (без запятой) и американский (который требует постановки запятой). Кстати, эта запятая носит название Oxford comma.

Если вы не знаете, какого правила придерживаться - просто учитывайте аудиторию, для которой пишите текст.

2. Знаки препинания при цитатах

Цитирование - это еще один случай, корда расстановка знаков препинания в английском не совпадает с русским языком. Сравните:

He said, “I don’t think so.” и Он сказал: «Я так не думаю».

What a wonderful day”, she thought. и «Какой чудесный день», - подумала она.

3. Запятая перед who, which

Что касается придаточных предложений с who и which, то постановка запятой в данном случае зависит от функции этих предложений. Так, перед описательными придаточными запятая ставится, а перед пояснительными - нет.

Если вам сложно разобраться с функцией придаточного предложения - воспользуйтесь такой подсказкой: если часть предложения с who или which можно опустить и смысл предложения при этом не потеряется, то запятая в данном случае нужна. В противном случае запятая не ставится.

The girl who we saw yesterday is Tom’s sister. (who we saw yesterday - пояснение, без него предложение утратит смысл).

We went to the sea, which was warm that day. (which was warm that day можно опустить).

4. Запятая перед if в условных предложениях (Conditional)

Обстоятельственное придаточное с if отделяется в том случае, если оно стоит перед главным предложением. Сравните:

You’ll get wet if it rains.

If it rains, you’ll get wet.

5. Точка с запятой в сложносочиненных предложениях

Используйте точку с запятой (а не запятую), чтобы разделить две части бессоюзного сложносочиненного предложения:

Kate did not come to the party; she had a date.

Если одно из предложений начинается с союза however, in fact, moreover, furthermore, still, instead, therefore, otherwise, nevertheless, thus, и т.п., то части такого сложносочиненного предложения также необходимо разделять точкой с запятой:

I feel bad; moreover, I had a fever.

Надеемся, эти правила помогут вам разобраться с трудностями английской пунктуации и избежать ошибок в написании.

***
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3 comments to Пять правил английской пунктуации

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